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Abstract


THE MESSAGES TO THE FUTURE POLITICAL FABRIC FROM THE UNION AND PROGRESS’ EFFORTS TO FORM A POLITICAL IDENTITY
The Ottoman Empire embodied a cosmopolitan structure of different ethnic and religious identities from its beginning and managed to transform these differences into a source of richness. Having lived on a wide area for a long time, the Ottoman Empire became important for both Turkish and European history. Ottoman modernization gained momentum with the movement of Young Ottomans. During this process, such new values as nation, homeland, public opinion, parliament, responsible administration, political freedom etc. aimed at the survival of the state on the one hand and paved the way for severing ties with the present state on the other hand. The modernization process started with the Sened-i İttifak (Charter of Alliance), gained momentum with the imperial edicts of Tanzimat (Reorganization) and Islahat (Reform), and finally led to the two constitutionalist eras. Several political parties emerged in the partly libertarian Second Constitutionalist Era, partly in a way “to miss the thread” “in rapid succession”. Those parties not only encoloured the Turkish political life with their names, types of organization and programmes but also incorporated the pains and grieves of the future. This paper aims to analyze the manifesto and programme of İttihad ve Terakki (Union and Progress) , oen of the political parties active in the Second Constitutionalist Era. In this way, the paper tries to reveal the signs from this political revolution for the political fabric of the future and political grounds of the orientation towards the understanding of social unity, nation-state, and republican-secular state.
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Keywords
Ottoman Force Association, Turkish Force Society, Mustafa Kemal Pasha


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